Bladder cancer, the ninth most common malignancy worldwide, is a type of cancer that develops in the bladder cells. The bladder is a muscular and hollow organ that serves as a reservoir for urine. The liquid waste or urine, made by kidneys, passes to the bladder with the help of two tubes known as ureters. During urination, the bladder muscles contract, and the liquid waste comes out through the urethra.
Types Of Bladder Cancer
Studies reveal that there are five types of bladder cancer, and these are the following:
Also known as transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), urothelial carcinoma is the most common type of bladder cancer. Research suggests that if you have bladder cancer, it is likely to be urothelial carcinoma.
This type of cancer generally begins in the urothelial cells that line the inner surface of the bladder. These cells are also found in kidneys or ureters, or tubes that connect kidneys to the bladder. When these cells start to grow out of control, they form a tumor that spreads to other parts of the body.
In the United States, about 1% of bladder cancer patients have adenocarcinoma. They are very much related to the gland-forming cells of colon cancer.
Small Cell Carcinoma
Not more than 1% of bladder cancer is small cell carcinoma. The ailment starts in the nerve-like cells, also known as neuroendocrine cells. Unlike other cancers, small cell carcinoma spreads rapidly and primarily needs to be treated with chemotherapy.
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
The following most frequent kind of bladder cancer is squamous cell carcinoma. In North America and Europe, it accounts for roughly 5% of all bladder malignancies. This cancer starts in the bladder’s thin, flat squamous cells, which arise as a result of chronic inflammation and infection. Squamous cell carcinoma is most common in areas where schistosomiasis, a parasite infection, is expected in the Middle East.
It is a sporadic type of bladder cancer and begins in the muscle cells of the bladder. There are several types of sarcoma. Osteosarcoma spreads in bones, liposarcoma in fat, while rhabdomyosarcoma forms in muscles.
Read : Rhabdomyosarcoma: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment
Symptoms Of Bladder Cancer
If you don’t know how bladder cancer is diagnosed, we are here to help you.
- Usually, the first and common symptom of bladder cancer for most people is blood in the urine, also known as hematuria. Such signs are generally seen after the age of 40. If the blood is visible, it will prompt the patient to consult a doctor, while most of the time, blood is microscopic and can only be discovered during a routine lab test.
- The other symptom could be frequent and painful urination. You should consult a doctor if you are facing any kind of difficulty in passing urine.
- Abdominal and lower back pain is also regarded as one of the signs of bladder cancer.
- Problems such as urinary incontinence and loss of bladder control could be another sign.
The presence of one of the signs mentioned above does not always mean that you have bladder cancer. Since they are abnormal bodily functions, consulting a doctor becomes essential. Occasionally, people diagnosed with bladder cancer do not experience pain or excessive bleeding; thus, medical attention is significant.
Causes of Bladder Cancer
The exact causes of the ailment are unknown, but several factors can increase the risk of bladder cancer. These are mentioned below.
- Smoking harmful chemicals such as cigarettes, cigars, or pipes may increase the risk of bladder cancer. Studies reveal that smoking damages and deteriorates the bladder lining.
- Gender plays a significant role as well. Research suggests that males are more likely to develop cancer in their lifetime than women.
- Genetic mutation if one of your blood relatives, such as a parent, has a history of bladder cancer, the chances of getting the disease can increase. Also, if you’ve had bladder cancer before, you are more likely to get it again.
- Urinary tract infections, bladder stones can also cause bladder cancer.
There is no proven way to prevent bladder cancer, but taking necessary steps such as quitting smoking, consuming more fruits and vegetables, and avoiding harmful chemicals may help. According to the bladder cancer survival rate statistics, about 77% of people in the United States survived for at least five years after knowing that they had cancer.
Codes For Bladder Cancer
While talking about the International Classification of Diseases or ICD Code for bladder cancer, C67.9 can be used for bladder cancer ICD-10-CM. Generally, it helps during the reimbursement.
Bladder Cancer Stages
Like other diseases, bladder cancer has several stages. In the early stages, the ailment is confined to the bladder lining, while in later stages, it penetrates the bladder wall and spreads to nearby organs.
The earliest stages are TA, T1, and CIS, While stages II to IV denotes invasive cancer.
- In Stage II, the disease has already been spread to the muscle wall of the bladder.
- During Stage III, bladder cancer spreads to the fatty tissues outside the bladder.
- In Stage IV, cancer proliferates to lymph nodes, organs, and bones.
Treatment For Bladder Cancer
There are several forms of treatment, but it depends on several factors such as the individual’s age, the overall history of the patient, and location and stage of the disease. However, the significant forms of treatments are mentioned below.
Patients of any stage can undergo surgery. Different methods of surgeries are the following:
- Transurethral Resection (TUR): Bladder cancer with stages 0 and 1 can be treated using this method. Surgeons insert a cutting tool into the bladder to remove rare tissues and small tumors.
- Cystectomy: A surgeon would perform a cystectomy if the cancer is larger and has spread extensively into the bladder.
- Reconstructive Surgery: This procedure is performed after a cystectomy. It helps in providing a new way for the human body to store and remove urine. An intestinal tissue allows reconstructing the bladder or surrounding tubes.
This method uses drugs to target and kills cancer cells; it can also treat the disease before or after the surgery. These drugs can be taken orally or by injections into the bladder using a tube known as a catheter.
Strengthening the immune system might also help fight cancer cells; this method is generally used in the early stages. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy is the most common form of biological therapy. Healthcare professionals perform the therapy with the help of a catheter. The tube inserts the bacterium into the bladder, triggering the immune system cells and fighting cancer cells. With the beginning of a TUR, the treatment takes place every week for six weeks. Furthermore, a burning sensation may occur during the treatment.
It is the least common method of treatment. Medical practitioners may recommend it with chemotherapy. Studies reveal that this method may help people who cannot have surgery.
If you found the blog helpful or are battling bladder cancer. Visit us at University Cancer Centres. We have one of the best and modern techniques to cure cancer and stop cell abnormality at the pre-stage of bladder cancer. Not just that, our medical professionals run clinical trials and are continuously on the voyage to find the most useful medications for battling the bladder. For further information on bladder cancer and much more, please navigate to our website.